The Dog Aging Project at the University of Washington started the first of a three-phase set of tests in 2017 to see if the anti-rejection medicine rapamycin could help dogs live longer.
The Pill that May Help Extend Dogs' Lives
Rapamycin has an anti-inflammatory effect and helps cells get rid of waste. It's already used to help humans accept kidneys after a transplant, and it has been found to increase the lifespan of mice by up to 25%.
The initial trials — conducted on 24 middle-aged Golden Retrievers, Labradors, and German Shepherds — were designed to test if the drug was safe to give to dogs. Following the end of this first testing phase, scientists found evidence of improvements in the dogs’ hearts.
“The key findings were that there were no significant side effects associated with the rapamycin treatment, and there were statistically significant improvements in heart function in the dogs that received rapamycin relative to those that received the placebo, similar to what has been observed in older laboratory mice,” said University of Washington’s Dr. Matt Kaeberlein.
He stressed that it was essential to keep in mind that this was a small study that requires replication before further confidence can be found in the results. Dr. Kaeberlein added:
“It's also important to recognize that we don't have any evidence that the improvements in heart function indicate overall improvements in health or slower aging in these dogs or even what the long-term effects of rapamycin will be."
What Scientists Found When They Tested the Pill on 50 Dogs
Phase one ended with researchers saying the results were "highly encouraging" and "strong justification" for continuing the trials.
In the middle of 2018, phase two of the trial began. This was a one-year trial to assess the effects of rapamycin on the heart function of 50 dogs. The trial also looked at the effects of rapamycin on the cognitive function and activity of dogs.
“In phase two, we’re looking at two things,” Dr. Kaeberlein said. “First, can we replicate the positive heart function we saw in phase one over a longer period? And second, are there any persistent effects? Do changes last after dogs come off rapamycin?”
No official start date has been confirmed, but phase three (the real experiment) of the study is expected to last five years, with dogs being enrolled during the first 18 months of this time period.
The aim of phase three is to have a cohort of dogs that are aging rapidly. If rapamycin has any beneficial effects, the results will be seen in Phase three.
Dr. Kaeberlein explained further: “Unlike phase one, which is mostly about safety and phase two, which is mostly about cardiac function, phase three is about lifespan. And to detect an expected 15% increase in lifespan over a three-year period, the math said we need 600 dogs aged seven or older.”
Dr. Kaeberlein said: “Imagine what you could do with an additional two to five years with your beloved pet in the prime of his or her life. This is within our reach today."
“We all want our pets to be around for as long as possible, so it’s an exciting development that it may be possible in the near future,” Dr. Kaeberlein added.
How Can I Increase My Dog's Lifespan?
Some simple everyday steps can help keep your dog healthier, which could mean they live longer:
1. Watch What They Eat
Improvements to pet food have helped extend dogs’ lifespans, so speak to your vet about the best food for your dog's breed.
You should also weigh out their food and weigh your pet regularly, as obesity can significantly shorten a dog's lifespan.
2. The Right Amount (and Type) of Exercise
Keeping your dog healthy with regular walks can help give them a long, happy life. As they age, you might have to switch to lower-impact activities to protect their joints — less ball chasing, more swimming.
3. Give Their Brain a Workout, Too
Regular games that test their sense of smell and ability to learn and remember will help keep their minds active and sharp. It can be as simple as feeding treats and meals in puzzle toys or scattering treats for them to sniff out.
4. Look After Their Teeth
5. Schedule Regular Vet Visits
Getting them to the vet for a check-up at least once or twice a year will mean any problems can be picked up and treated earlier, which gives them a better chance of living longer.
Pet insurance can help with expensive treatment fees if they fall ill or get injured. Getting them covered early in life reduces their chance of encountering any pre-existing condition exclusions.
How Long Do Dogs Live?
Dogs tend to live for about 10 to 13 years. But there are few scientific studies into dog lifespans, and life expectancy also depends on breed and size.
Smaller breeds have an average life expectancy of 12 to 14 years. Larger breeds have a life expectancy of eight to 10 years.
Measured in human years, a dog's life expectancy averages about 60 to 80 years. But the old "one human year equals seven dog years" theory is now considered too simplistic. It's based on an outdated statistic that dogs lived to about ten and humans lived to about 70.
Think of it this way: A dog's first year equals about 15 human years. Then it's nine human years for the dog's second year. Then it's five human years for each year after that.
That means the dog-to-human-years calculation looks more like this:
Which Dog breed Has the Longest Lifespan?
The oldest dog on record is an Australian Cattle Dog named Bluey, who lived to 29 years old — equal to 159 human years!
At ManyPets, we cover pets up to 14 years old on the date of their policy — though we have no age limits for pets with existing policies if you continue to renew.
Which Breed Has the Shortest Lifespan?
Dr. Kelly M. Cassidy created a list that says Bulldogs have the shortest life expectancy, at six years. Other lists say Dogue de Bordeaux, which lives for about five to eight years.
What is the Lifespan of a Dog With Cancer?
Finding out your dog has cancer can be extremely upsetting. How long they will live with the disease depends on factors such as the kind of cancer, the treatment they receive, and the age and size of the dog.
It can be tough to weigh the benefits of cancer treatment against the impact on your dog’s quality of life. Chemotherapy remission can take 12 months, so it may not be humane for older dogs.
But veterinary procedures have improved in recent years, and it may be possible to extend your pet’s life through cancer treatment. Treatment can be extremely expensive, but pet insurance can help make it affordable.