When faced with pleading puppy eyes, many pet parents reach for the treats. After all, food is love! How much could another scoop of kibble or one more bacon snack really hurt?
Unfortunately, not only is overfeeding unhealthy for our pets, but it’s not great for the planet either. In addition to experiencing weight-related health problems, obese dogs and cats contribute to climate change by having larger “carbon pawprints” as a result of their increased consumption.
Not only are pet obesity and climate change connected, they’re both growing in scale and severity. According to a 2019 report by the PDMA, vets believe 51% of dogs in the UK are overweight or obese. Globally, June 2023 was the warmest June on record according to the 2023 Global Climate Report.
To better understand the connection between your pet and the planet, it helps to understand the carbon cost of pet food.
The link between pet food and climate change
From beetroot to burgers, all food requires natural resources and energy to produce. But compared to plant-based diets, raising meat takes a much heavier toll on the environment, necessitating more energy, land, and water. And most pet foods, of course, are composed almost entirely of meat.
So, just how significant is this carbon pawprint? One study, found that feeding a 10kg dog (roughly the size of a standard Dachshund) wet food is associated with the equivalent of 6,541kg of CO₂ emissions each year. This equates to 98% of the total emissions of an average Brazilian citizen. By contrast, a dry food diet for the same dog would result in emissions equivalent to 828kg of CO₂.
Decreasing the amount of meat in your pet’s diet isn’t always an option. Dogs are omnivores and benefit from the nutrients in both meat and plants. (There may be certain types of vegetarian diets that are healthy for dogs, but you absolutely must consult your vegetarian before you consider this option.) Meanwhile, as “obligate” carnivores, there’s really no such thing as a healthy vegetarian diet for cats; they need the unique amino acids found in meats to stay healthy.
However, if your pet is overweight, cutting back the amount of food they eat can help shrink their carbon footprint while improving their health.
Unhealthy pets have unhealthy pet carbon pawprints
If your pet is looking a little “fluffier” these days, you’re not alone. Pet obesity is on the rise, and those extra pounds come with bigger pet carbon footprints.
"Obesity is a huge epidemic in our four-legged friends," says Dr. Lauren Jones, a veterinarian based in the US. "As with people, obesity can lead to diabetes, heart disease, or the exacerbation of underlying arthritis.”
Combined with higher rates of pet ownership, overfeeding is creating an increased demand for pet foods, says Pim Martens, Professor of Sustainable Development at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. To meet this demand, manufacturers must raise more livestock specifically for pet consumption, as more sustainable byproducts from the human-grade meat industry no longer suffice.
Currently, Martens is working on a project in the United Kingdom to bring awareness to the relationship between overweight pets and climate change.
“In a lot of Western countries, most of the pets are overweight,” he says. “To reduce the ecological paw print of an overweight pet and make them healthier, feed your pet less. It's a win-win.”
How to reduce the effects of your pet on climate change
As pet parents, it’s our responsibility to make sure our pets (and our planet!) stay as healthy and fit as possible. “Achieving and maintaining an ideal body weight is a crucial part of keeping pets healthy and living into their golden years," says Dr. Jones.
Of course, losing weight and eating less are easier said than done. To help your four-legged friend live their best life, consider the following diet and exercise tips.
Consult your veterinarian. First things first: Before changing your pet’s diet or exercise routine, make an appointment with your veterinarian. Every animal is unique, and your vet can determine your individual pet’s ideal weight, caloric intake, and exercise goals.
Take things slow. Weight loss is a marathon, not a sprint. “While working with a veterinarian on a weight loss plan for your pet, it is important to undertake efforts gradually, with a goal to lose no more than 1-2% of an individual’s body weight per week,” advises Dr. Jones.
Practise precise portion control. To ensure your pet is receiving the correct amount of food, don’t simply “guestimate” their dinner portion. Invest in a measuring scoop or a small set of scales and serve the exact amount that your veterinarian advises.
Limit treats. When it comes to calories, treats can add up quickly. If you give your pet a treat, consider subtracting those calories from their next mealtime. Instead of high-calorie store-bought dog treats, consider a small portion of a pup-safe fruit or vegetable.
Incorporate exercise. In addition to eating well, it’s important for overweight pets to move more. “Restricting calories alone is generally insufficient in helping a pet to lose weight, as they need to get up and get moving to increase their calorie expenditure,” says Dr. Jones. Obese pets may have trouble with strenuous exercise, and should gradually increase their activity under the supervision of your veterinarian, Jones adds.
Maintaining a healthy weight is hard work, but it’s worth it – for your pet and for the planet. From our many pets to yours, good luck and bone appetite!