Guide to Vitamins and Supplements for Dogs

28 September 2021 - 4 min read

This article was written for the United States market and the advice provided may not be accurate for those in the United Kingdom.

Do you give your dog vitamins or supplements? If so, you’ve got company. Estimates show that around 30% of pet parents give their dogs at least one dietary supplement to help with conditions ranging from itchy skin to diarrhea to joint pain. But are vitamins and supplements necessary? And even more importantly, do they sometimes do more harm than good?

Let’s take a look at which dog vitamins and supplements are safe and effective, and how to make sure your pup gets what they need.

Dog looking up

Dog Vitamins and Supplements 101

First, some definitions so that we’re all on the same page…

Dietary supplement is the broadest category we’ll address. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), dietary supplements are “products taken by mouth that contain a ‘dietary ingredient.’ Dietary ingredients include vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and herbs or botanicals, as well as other substances that can be used to supplement the diet.” Omega-3 fatty acids and glucosamine are examples of dietary supplements that are not vitamins or minerals.

On the other hand, vitamins are a distinct type of nutrient. They are organic compounds, meaning they contain the element carbon, but unlike protein, fat, and carbohydrates, which also contain carbon, vitamins aren’t a source of energy for dogs. Different vitamins play specific roles in the body, but as a group they are essential for growth, metabolism, and for fighting off disease. Like vitamins, minerals are necessary for a dog’s body to function normally, but they are inorganic nutrients (i.e., they don’t contain carbon).

Vitamins and minerals can be dietary supplements, like the multivitamin you may have taken this morning, but they're also found naturally in food. By combining high-quality ingredients with any necessary supplements, good commercial dog foods should contain all the vitamins and minerals most healthy dogs need to thrive.

How to Know If Your Dog Needs Vitamins

Which dogs need extra vitamins? Any pet who eats primarily homemade dog food must take vitamin and mineral supplements. These should be included as part of the recipes for the foods you prepare, but if not, ask your vet to recommend an appropriate product. If your dog will only eat the canine equivalent of junk food, supplementation might also be beneficial.

Some health problems are managed, at least in part, by giving dogs extra vitamins or minerals. For example:

  • B vitamin supplements are often given to patients with gastrointestinal diseases

  • Vitamin A and zinc are used to treat certain skin conditions

    Iron may be prescribed for some types of anemia

  • Vitamin E and selenium can reduce inflammation

  • Vitamin K is used to treat dogs after they’ve eaten certain rodenticides

  • Vitamin D, in the form of calcitriol, may be given to dogs suffering from chronic kidney disease

  • Choline may help dogs with seizures or canine cognitive dysfunction

On the flip side, if your dog is healthy and eats a nutritionally complete and balanced, high-qualitycommercial dog food, adding a vitamin andmineralsupplementcould do more harm than good. Sometimes getting too much of something can be just as bad as getting too little. Talk to your veterinarian orveterinary nutritionistbefore giving your dog a vitamin ormineralsupplement.

Natural Ways to Include More Vitamins in Your Dog’s Diet

If your veterinarian has diagnosed your dog with a vitamin or mineral deficiency or a health problem that responds to supplementation, by all means give your dog what the doctor ordered!

However, if you simply have concerns about your dog’s vitamin or mineral intake, it’s safer to make sure your dog is eating a high-quality dog food. You can also give healthy people food from your kitchen as treats. Lots of fruits and vegetables — like carrots, cooked sweet potatoes, green beans, and apples — are safe for dogs and rich in vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients.

Which Vitamins Do Dogs Need to Stay Healthy?

While supplements aren’t always necessary, vitamins and minerals themselves are! Deficiencies can cause a variety of health problems depending on which nutrients are involved. The first symptoms that develop are often non-specific and can include weight loss, a poor quality coat, and low energy levels.

Here’s a list of vitamins and minerals that are an important part of a healthy diet and a few of their roles in the body:


  • Vitamin A for skin and eye health

  • Vitamin D to keep bones and teeth strong

  • Vitamin E as an antioxidant

  • Vitamin K for normal blood clotting

  • B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, and cobalamin) to catalyze chemical reactions needed for dogs to harness energy from food

  • Other B vitamins, like folic acid and biotin, to help with cell growth and cell maintenance

  • Choline, often classified as a B vitamin, for fat transport, the transmission of neurologic signals, and as a part of cell membranes

  • Vitamin C as an antioxidant and for immune system support. Dogs can make all the vitamin C they need in their liver but extra may be added to some foods.


  • Calcium and phosphorus for bone growth and maintenance

  • Magnesium for a healthy metabolism

  • Sodium and chloride as electrolytes

  • Iron to carry oxygen

  • Zinc for healthy skin and immune function

  • Copper for normal coloration and red blood cell formation

  • Selenium as an antioxidant

  • Iodine as a part of thyroid hormones

  • Chromium for energy production

Common Symptoms Supplements Can Help With

Most dogs don’t benefit when extra vitamins and minerals are added to an already healthy diet, but the situation can be different for other types of supplements. Some of the most useful dietary supplements for dogs include:

  • Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), avocado and soybean unsaponifiables (ASU), and hyaluronic acid for inflamed and painful joints

  • Omega-3 fatty acids to improve the skin and coat and to reduce inflammation

  • Common probiotics for digestive health

  • Specialized probiotics to relieve stress

  • Herbal remedies for liver support

  • Antioxidants for canine senior citizens or dogs in poor health

While supplements like these are available over-the-counter, it’s still best to speak with your veterinarian before giving them to your dog. They are generally quite safe but can have a negative effect when used in the wrong situations or at the wrong doses.

An Example: Joint Supplements

Approximately 30% of pet parents give their dogs joint supplements to help with such problems as hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, and arthritis or simply to optimize joint health. Joint supplements often contain several active ingredients (glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, MSM, ASU, and hyaluronic acid, for example) that can protect and heal cartilage, improve the amount and quality of joint fluid, and reduce inflammation and pain. Veterinarians also often recommend that dogs with arthritis or other joint problems take omega-3 fatty acids or vitamin E because they can further reduce inflammation.

But keep in mind that supplements, including joint supplements, usually work best in combination with other forms of treatment. For arthritis, this might include other dietary supplements, weight management, anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving medications, acupuncture, therapeutic laser treatments, massage, physical rehabilitation, stem cell therapy, platelet rich plasma injections, and surgery. Your veterinarian can recommend just the right combination of treatments based on your dog’s unique situation.

Tips for Shopping for Dog Vitamins and Supplements

Under the right circumstances, dog vitamins and supplements can play important roles in your dog’s health care. Use them carefully, though. Dogs should get just what they need, no more and no less. For example, dogs who have been diagnosed with zinc-responsive dermatosis should be on a zinc supplement, not a multivitamin that contains zinc as well as a laundry list of other vitamins and minerals.

And again, never give your dog vitamins or other supplements designed for people without first talking to your vet. This can't be stressed enough: Human nutrient requirements are different from canine nutrient requirements. If your vet has recommended a specific vitamin, supplement or diet, don’t make a change without first running it by the doctor.

You might think that your work is over once you and your veterinarian have come up with a detailed plan to help your dog, but that’s not the case. The quality of supplements varies tremendously. Some have been shown to provide much less of their active ingredients than their label claims. Others contain potentially dangerous contaminants. Your veterinarian can recommend trusted supplements from reputable manufacturers. Also, look for products that are labeled with the National Animal Supplements Council (NASC) Quality Seal. The NASC is a nonprofit industry group that sets standards for pet products.

Dog looking sideways

Jennifer Coates, DVM
Veterinarian, Veterinary Writer, Editor, and Consultant

Dr. Jennifer Coates is a writer, editor, and consultant with experience in veterinary medicine, science, animal welfare, conservation, and communications. She has written for outlets including petMD, Chewy, and ManyPets.