Jack Russell Terriers are energetic, loyal dogs who love to run, play, and occasionally yip. They're some of our favourite pups here at ManyPets — we even featured one in a pet insurance ad.
So what’s the story on their health? What conditions are Jack Russells prone to developing, and how long do they tend to live?
What is a Jack Russell Terrier, actually?
Jack Russells were officially recognised by the UK Kennel Club in 2016. Originally developed for fox hunting by Rev. John Russell, they've retained their hunting spirit and will keep pet owners on their toes.
Their longer-legged counterpart is the Parsons Russell, while the Jack Russel retains its shorter legs.
In the US recognition of Jack Russells is slightly different.
The AKC doesn't currently recognize a single "Jack Russell Terrier" breed, just two distinct breeds stemming from the Jack Russell: the "Parson Russell" and the "Russell Terrier." However, the Jack Russell Terrier Club of America does recognise it as one breed.
Jack Russell Terrier health concerns
The average lifespan for a Jack Russell is around 13–16 years, which isn't too shabby for a purebred dog. With proper care, they can live even longer.
Whether you’re already a proud Jack Russell parent or thinking about whether the breed is right for you and your family, it's important to know which canine health problems your furry friend could run into down the line. That way, you can take action to avoid any preventable illnesses, catch any other dangerous illnesses early on, and prolong your time with your pup.
Eye problems such as hereditary cataracts are fairly common in Jack Russells. They can suffer from "Primary Lens Luxation," a hereditary condition where the lens of the eye becomes dislocated. If left untreated, it may cause glaucoma or even blindness.
Jack Russells can also be prone to developing liver problems such as Portosystemic Shunt (PSS). This condition occurs when the blood bypasses the liver, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body.
Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s Disease)
Cushing’s Disease is another condition that Jack Russells can develop. This occurs when your pupper's body produces too much cortisol, leading to symptoms such as increased thirst and appetite, as well as excessive and frequent urination.
Bladder or kidney stones
Jack Russells can be prone to developing bladder or kidney stones (ouch!), which can cause discomfort and urinary issues. Left unchecked, these can escalate into life-threatening issues.
Keep an eye out for limping or lameness. Jack Russells may be more likely to develop joint issues such as Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease, Patellar Luxation, hip dysplasia, and elbow dysplasia, all of which may lead to pain and mobility issues.
A-CHOO! Does your Jack Russell seem to be afflicted with seasonal allergies, food allergies, or itchiness? Allergies might sound mild enough, but left unchecked, they may lead to Atopic Dermatitis, a skin condition that causes itching and inflammation and may require lifelong allergy treatment.
Not only are seizures in your dog frightening to behold, but they can also be life-threatening. Some Jack Russells may fall victim to epilepsy, a condition that involves recurrent seizures. Dogs who suffer from epilepsy may need regular evaluations and medication to keep symptoms in check.
Like most pups with small jaws, Jack Russells commonly suffer from dental issues that can lead to decay and, eventually, extractions. Regular check-ups with your vet are important so you can catch any dental decay, as is proper at-home care, like brushing your dog's teeth. Occasionally, your dog may need professional dental cleanings.
Mast Cell tumours
How to avoid common conditions in Jack Russell Terriers
First things first: If you’re currently in the market for a purebred Jack Russell Terrier puppy, buy from a reputable breeder.
Certain hereditary conditions just tend to be common to certain dog breeds; this much is true. However, a responsible breeder won't sell you a dog whose immediate relatives have suffered from major hereditary health conditions. In other words, they'll try their hardest to send you home with a pup who's primed for lifelong health.
Unfortunately, there are many unethical “backyard breeders” who may breed Jack Russells—or at least dogs that resemble the breed—from dogs with known (or unknown yet untested) conditions such as epilepsy and luxating patella.
While a puppy from a high-quality breeder may cost more up front, you'll likely save money on the health issues you'll avoid down the road.
Make your vet visits and vaccines a priority
The best thing you can do after you get your Jack Russell is find a vet. If possible, do your research and find your ideal vet before you get your pet. Your vet is a valuable partner who can provide expert advice to help you and your Jack Russell enjoy as many years together as possible.
Pay attention to shifts in behaviour
There’s no need to obsess over every little change, but if you notice something abnormal in your Jack Russell's condition — whether it's their appetite, energy levels, or behaviour — take note and report back to your vet. Again, it’s much easier to treat a health condition if it’s caught early.
Make sure they get regular exercise
One of the best ways to avoid preventable diseases is also the simplest: exercise. All dogs benefit from regular exercise, but bouncy Jack Russells require more than many other breeds. Ample physical activity will keep them fit and prevent obesity.
Jack Russells are smart dogs, too, so you may want to incorporate puzzles or agility classes to keep them occupied. If you don’t exercise their bodies and minds, they may figure out creative—and destructive—ways to stay entertained.
Feed them a balanced diet in the right portions
The right balanced diet — in the right amount—is monumentally important for every dog, but perhaps especially so for small-statured pups like the Jack Russell.
While those extra treats and table scraps might make your dog happy in the moment, in the long run, overfeeding and excess weight can cause serious health conditions. Treats aren’t off the table, but make sure you're not pushing past a healthy daily calorie intake. Be careful which human foods you feed your Jack Russell, and be vigilant about serving sizes.
Provide regular grooming
While it may feel tedious to brush your Jack Russell’s teeth every day, it can really pay off in the long run.
The Bottom Line
Your pup is more than just a pet; they're a cherished part of your family. (Do we even need to say that?) But taking care of their health can get expensive.
Pet insurance is designed to ease the financial burden of emergency or unplanned veterinary care. ManyPets offers dog insurance for your Jack Russell that’s free of pesky hidden fees and annual payout limits. Here's to many more years with your frisky terrier!